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Lower Extremity and Pelvis(Foot)
Lower Extremity and Pelvis

1    Foot

Survey films(1.1)are essential in cases of injuries and the sequelae .Only-rarely additional exposures are required .We would emphasize the significance of the oblique exposure. A congenital bony junction between talus and calcaneus , or navicular and calcaneus can only be diagnosed with certainty in this way .

It is instructive for the assessment of functional states to compare a film taken of the weighted foot with one without weighting . When possible we prefer the lateral view with weighting(1.1.4), because it can be best reproduced and gives information about the function of ankle and midtarsal joint and about the normal or pathological static configuration of the foot (flat foot ,pes cavus ,etc.) In cases of ankylosis of these joints, a lateral exposure in maximal dorsal extension or plantar flexion forms a valuable document in regard to function .

1.1    Survey

1.1.1   dorso-plantar

Positioning: Foot plantar-flexed . Sole of foot flat on cassette.

Film size : 24×30cm .

Direction of central ray :Toward base of 2nd metatarsal ,dorso-plantar, vertical onto cassette .

1.1.2              Lateral

Positioning: Lateral foot edge on cassette .

Film size : 24×30cm .

Direction of central ray :Toward base of 1st metatarsal , medio-lateral (tibio-fibular) .

1.1.3   Oblique

Positioning: Sole of foot against cassette, lateral edge of foot raised 45°.

Film size : 24×30cm .

Direction of central ray: Toward base of 3rd metatarsalvertical onto cassette .

1.1.4   functional exposure: Lateral with weighting.

Positioning: Patient standing (on a pedestal) , weight equally on both feet .Cassette standing in median plane between feet .

Film size : 24×30cm .

Direction of central ray : Toward base of 4th metatarsal, latero-medial (fibulo-tibial) .

1.1.5              functional exposurelateral in maximal dorsal extension .

Positioning: Medial foot margin on cassette . Patient lies on his side. Knee joint flexed 90°. Foot maximally extended dorsally.

Film size : 24×30cm .

Direction of central ray: Toward middle of 4th metatarsal , latero-medial .

1.1.6              functional exposure: lateral in maximal plantar-flexion .

Positioning: Medial foot margin on cassette . Patient lies on his side. Knee joint flexed 90°. Foot maximally plantar-flexed.

Film size : 24×30cm .

Direction of central ray: Toward middle of 4th metatarsal , latero-medial .

 




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